2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 7: by John Bryan Holds MD

By John Bryan Holds MD

Information the anatomy of the orbit and adnexa, and emphasizes a pragmatic method of the overview and administration of orbital and eyelid issues, together with malpositions and involutional alterations. Updates present details on congenital, inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and hectic stipulations of the orbit and accent constructions. Covers key facets of orbital, eyelid and facial surgical procedure. comprises quite a few new colour photographs. significant revision 2011-2012.

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Additional resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic & Clinical Science Course)

Sample text

Th is multisystem granulomatous inflammatory condition may present with lacrimal gland enlargement, conjunctival granulomas. extraocular muscle o r optic nerve inmtration, or solitary orbital gran ulomas. Diagnosis is confirmed through biopsy of 1 or more affected organs. CHAPTER 3 Congenital Orbital Anomalies Most congenital anomalies of the eye and orbit are apparent on ultrasound before birth. Developmental orbital defects can manifest at any time from conception until late in life. If an anomaly is caused by a slowing or cessation of a normal stage, the resulting deformity can be considered a pure arrest.

If the dermoid occu rs more posteriorly, in the temporal fossa, computed tomography (CT) is often indicated to mle o ut dumbbell expansion through the suture into the under lying orbit. Medial lesions in the infant should be distinguished from congenital encephaloceles and dacryoceles. Dermoid cysts that do not present until adulthood often are not palpable because they are situated posteriorly in the orbit, usuall y in the superior and temporal portions adjacent to the bony sutures. The globe and ad nexa may be displaced, causing progressive proptosis, and erosion or remodeling of bone can occur.

Preseptal cellulitis Preseptal cellulitis occurs anterior to the septu m. Eyelid edema, erythe ma, and in flamma tion may be seve re, but the globe is uninvol ved. Therefore. pupillary reaction , visual acuity, a nd ocular motility are not di sturbed ; and pain o n eye move ment and chem osis are abse nt. Alth ough preseptal cellulitis in adults is usually due to penetrating cutaneous trauma or dacryocystitis, in chi ldren the most co ml11on cause is unde rl ying sinusitis. Histori cali y. preseptal cellulitis in infants and children yo unger than 5 years was often associated with bacte re mia, sept ice mi a, and menin gitis ca used by Ha emophilus inJIuenzae.

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