By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Hermann D. Schubert MD
Presents an outline of the constitution and serve as of the retina and its dating to the pigment epithelium, choroid and vitreous. Describes the key vitreoretinal problems and applicable diagnostic tools and therapy principles.
In its final significant revision, part 12 was once re-organized into 3 elements. Separate chapters at the moment are dedicated to age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity, together with the most recent imaging recommendations and choroidal element. chosen healing subject matters contain laser treatment and vitreoretinal surgery.
Upon of completion of part 12, readers can be capable to:
Select applicable tools of exam and ancillary stories for the analysis of vitreoretinal disorders
Describe the rules of scientific and surgical operation of vitreoretinal disorders
Incorporate information from significant potential scientific trials within the administration of chosen vitreoretinal problems
Read or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 12: Retina and Vitreous PDF
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Extra info for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 12: Retina and Vitreous
This voltage differential, called the standing potential, is positive at the cornea and measures 6-10 m V Although the RPE itself is not a light receptor, activation of the photoreceptors in the neurosensory retina can lead to changes in the ionic composition of the extracellular (subretinal) space or to the release of transmitter substances that produce an electrical response in the RPE. For example, when a dark-adapted eye is exposed to steady light, the standing potential across the RPE rises very slowly and reaches a peak 5-10 minutes after the onset of light.
Electrophysiologic Testing in Disorders of the Retina, Optic Nerve, and Visual Pathway. Ophthalmology Monograph 2. 2nd ed. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2001. Ogden TE. Clinical electrophysiology. In: Ryan SJ, Hinton DR, Schachat AP, Wilkinson CP, eds. Retina. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Mosby; 2006:351-371. Electroretinogram Recording and Interpreting the Response The clinical ERG is a mass response evoked from the entire retina by a brief flash of light. Five different responses are the basis of most clinical evaluations and are standardized internationally so that ERG results can be interpreted easily at different medical centers (Fig 3-1): 1.
Although the fluorescence in the choroid is blocked by pigment in the RPE, it is usually visible as deep, diffuse background fluorescence. Fluorescein is injected into a peripheral vein and enters the ocular circulation via the ophthalmic artery 8-12 seconds later, depending on the rate of injection and the patient's age and cardiovascular health. The retinal and choroidal vessels fill during the transit phase, which lasts 10-15 seconds. Choroidal filling is characterized by a patchy choroidal flush, with choriocapillary lobules often visible.