By R. B. Partridge

This well timed overview covers all features of 3 many years of research of this ghostly remnant of the recent large Bang foundation of the Universe, and examines the results for astrophysics, cosmology and theories of the evolution of large-scale cosmic constitution. The observational ideas used to degree the spectrum of CBR and its angular distribution at the sky are tested in transparent yet severe element: from the paintings of Penzias and Wilson in 1964 to the newest effects from NASA's Cosmic Microwave historical past Explorer (COBE) satellite tv for pc. This evaluation takes those observations and exhibits how they've got formed our present figuring out of the early historical past of the Universe and of the beginning and evolution of the large-scale buildings in it. As a complete and up to date reference, this booklet is acceptable for researchers.

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**Sample text**

At present energies \/s < 103 GeV only the first maximum and a "shoulder" start to appear. This prediction of a structure in multiplicity distributions at very high energies is consistent with experimental observations at existing colliders. The model well reproduces also the semi-inclusive rapidity distributions and dependence of multiplicity distributions on rapidity n . Thus the study of multiplicity distributions not only confirms the multi-component structure of the model, but also shows that the weights of different components (ofc/cr^"1)) are close to the predictions of the quasi-eikonal approximation.

In most of calculations the diagrams of the eikonal type has been taken into account 14 - 12 . For example in the " quasieikonal" approximation (for account of more complicated diagrams with interactions between pomerons see below) the cross sections of 2k-chains production o^ have the form 32 -1 i 1 - exp(-z) £ - k > 1, (9) »=o where aP = 8irjP exp(A£), z = ^Jpi exp(A£), £ = In ^ . 5 takes into account modification of the eikonal approximation due to intermediate inelastic diffractive states. (9).

The whole series of n-pomeron exchanges should be summed. An account of these multipomeron exchanges in the i-channel leads to unitarization of scattering amplitudes. The Gribov reggeon diagrams technique 29 allows one to calculate contributions of Regge cuts to scattering amplitudes. Prom the point of view of 1/N-expansion n-pomeron exchange contributions correspond to more complicated topologies with "handles" . So each topological class of surfaces is characterized by a given number of boundaries (rib) and handles (rih)- Topological expansion allows one to give a complete classification of diagrams and to determine their dependence on the parameter 1/N.