A Comparative Grammar of the French, Italian, Spanish and by Edwin A Notley

By Edwin A Notley

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Extra info for A Comparative Grammar of the French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese Languages

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The analysis of the OI(1304 Å)/OI(1356 Å) intensity ratio derived from Pioneer Venus observations has provided evidence for precipitation of very soft electrons into the nightside atmosphere of Venus (Fox and Stewart 1991). At Mars, the brightness ratio of the nightside CO Cameron band emission and CO+ 2 ultraviolet doublet emission has been derived from Mars Express observations. Based on the analysis of these emissions, Leblanc et al. (2006) inferred that they are consistent with precipitation of electrons characterized by a few tens of eV, that is, of lower energies but with larger fluxes than those of the typical “auroral” electron spectra.

Onda et al. 1999; Solomon 1993). Calculations of the transport and energy deposition of auroral ions are even more complex than those of auroral electrons due to the production of neutrals and ions of different charge states through charge-changing reactions. , Cravens et al. 1995; Galand et al. 1997; Kallio et al. 1997; Basu et al. 2001; Kallio and Barabash 2001; Kharchenko et al. 2006). , Lorentzen 2000; Fang et al. 2005). g, electrons or neutrals) is heated divided by the total local energy deposition rate.

Recently a more powerful tool, the photoelectron-Auger electron coincidence method has been developed (Penent et al. 2005). In Kinetic Energy Release (KER) experiments, the distributions of fragment ions that arise from decay of doubly ionized molecules are determined. In order to study the KER spectrum of a doubly charged ion, the lifetime of the ion must be in the “experimental window”, which is generally less than of 100’s of ns. A wide range of lifetimes of doubly ionized molecules has been found, which complicates studies of their properties.

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