A History of Philosophy: Volume IX: Modern Philosophy from by Frederick Copleston

By Frederick Copleston

Conceived initially as a major presentation of the advance of philosophy for Catholic seminary scholars, Frederick Copleston's nine-volume A background Of Philosophy has journeyed a long way past the modest function of its writer to common acclaim because the top heritage of philosophy in English.

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In later writings Lamennais argued that Christianity, in its organized forms, had outlived its usefulness; but he continued to maintain the validity of religion, considered as a development of a divine element in man which unites him with God and with his fellows. In 1840 he published a brochure directed against the 16 FROM THE REVOLUTION TO AUGUSTE COMTE government and police and underwent a year's imprisonment as a result. After the 1848 revolution he was elected a deputy for the department of the Seine.

95. , p. 7. a TRADITIONAL REACTION TO THE REVOLUTION II for the regeneration of society. It was necessary to accept the democratic State as it was, to secure a complete separation of the Church from the State, and, within the Church, to insist on the supreme authority of the infallible pope. In other words, Lamennais combined acceptance of the idea of a democratic and religously non-affiliated State with insistence on ultramontanism within the Church. He hoped of course that the Church would succeed in christianizing society; but he had come to believe that this end could not be attained unless the Church renounced all State patronage and any privileged status.

4 In the same entry in the Journal however Maine de Biran says that he still believes that a 'thorough knowledge of the relations between the ego (moi) or the soul of man with the entire human being (the concrete person) should precede in the order of time or of study all the theoretical or practical inquiries into the two first 1 The changes are admirably presented in Les conversions de Maine de Biran (Paris, 1948) by Professor H. Gouhier, who is also at pains to illustrate the elements of continuity in de Biran's thought.

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