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Extra info for A Masterwork of Byzantine Art: The David Plates
Participants are then encouraged to respond to each memo presented as the human resource director in the company, in a complete and thoughtful manner, without worrying about how many memos they responded to. , Shalley, 1995; Zhou, 1998). In terms of measurement, laboratory studies have typically used Amabile’s (1983) consensual assessment technique to measure creative performance. Using this technique, a product is judged as creative if appropriate, independent judges reliably agree that it is creative.
Indb 8 10/2/07 10:06:53 AM Organizational Creativity Research ˘ have been widely used, as has Duncker’s (1945) Functional Fixedness Problem. Additionally, there are well-established training programs to facilitate cognitive processing for creativity. For example, Osborn’s (1953) work on brainstorming involves a set of four rules: (a) no evaluation of any kind, (b) encouragement of wild ideas, (c) encouragement of many ideas, and (d) build upon or modify the ideas of others, which should be followed in order to get the highest frequency of ideas generated as well as the most original ideas.
Ward, Smith, and Finke (1999) noted that there are different kinds of creative contributions, and that this may explain disagreements among creativity scholars about what “truly” underlies creativity. For example, there can be differences between goal-oriented or focused creativity versus exploratory creativity. Also, Ward and his colleagues (1999) talked about differences between domain-specific and universal creativity skills. Finally, Unsworth (2001) recently developed a matrix of four creativity types that varied on two dimensions: the driver for the engagement (external or internal) and the problem type (closed or open).