By Winston Fletcher
John Wanamaker famously saw that "half the cash I spend on advertisements is wasted; the difficulty is, I don't recognize which half." certainly, even though ads is pervasive in our society, the way it works (if and while it really works) isn't a query such a lot folks can solution. during this Very Short Introduction, Winston Fletcher, a professional advertisements veteran with wide within wisdom, bargains an illuminating examine this billion-dollar enterprise, dispelling the various myths and misunderstandings surrounding the undefined. Fletcher deals a brief historical past of ads and explains how the works and the way all of the parties--the advertisers, the media, and the agencies--contribute to the method. He additionally seems on the monetary part of advertisements and asks how today's Wanamakers comprehend in the event that they were profitable, or even if their cash has actually been wasted. The booklet concludes with a dialogue of arguable and unacceptable parts of ads, comparable to ads geared toward teenagers and the merchandising of goods akin to cigarettes and alcohol.
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Extra resources for Advertising: A Very Short Introduction
Larger advertisements cost more than smaller ones, but the cost is not directly proportional to size: to encourage advertisers to buy bigger spaces, smaller advertisements are generally slightly more expensive pro rata. Colour advertisements are more expensive than black and white ones: historically, this was because colour used to cost more to print – today the printing cost differentials are small, and the price differentials simply reﬂect supply and demand. Similarly, newspapers charge more for advertisements in certain positions, positions which many advertisers want because they are looked at by more readers of the publication, or by their particular target market (sports products on sports pages, for example); obviously the cost of printing the advertisements does not change with the position – again, the different prices simply reﬂect supply and demand.
Let us consider each in turn. First, the advertisers: retailers, manufacturers, ﬁnance companies, charities, governments, loving suitors like Muscleman, and countless others. They pay for all the advertising, but advertising is not their principal activity. For them, advertising is a means to an end. It is, as we saw earlier, one of the numerous means of marketing communication. For many, it will be their main means of marketing communication, on which they spend considerable sums of money. These will generally be advertisers selling high-volume famous brands to the general public: brands like Coca-Cola, Sony, L’Oreal, Toyota, Tesco, British Airways, and tens of thousands more.
Advertising results are a continuum. Advertising Moreover, for advertisers the key question is not merely whether the advertising generated any sales. The key question is: did the level of sales more than cover the cost of the campaign, and so produce a proﬁt? Because this, or course, is why advertisers advertise: to make a proﬁt. Yet again, this is not an easy question to answer, because advertising generates – and advertisers almost always intend it to generate – both immediate sales and long-term sales.